Catalogue Raisonne Life and Work The Foundation

ARCHIPENKO SCULPTURE CATALOGUE RAISONNE

GUIDE TO ENTRIES

The Alexander Archipenko Catalogue Raisonné considers the following Guide to Entries:

  • ARTWORKS

    Cataloguing and Numbering System
    Each artwork is assigned a CR number and an individual ID number. The CR number is used to register an artwork. It is made up of the prefix s. for sculpture, followed by the last two digits of the year in which the sculpture was conceived, followed by a dash and two more digits. Every CR number comprises at least one individual ID number; more often it includes numerous ID numbers. For instance, the CR number s.10-14 refers to the sculpture Kneeling, 1910. Also, we currently record three examples under this CR number, identified as work IDs 3216, 3218, and 4900.

    Works considered variants share a CR number, followed by an alphabetical suffix indicating the sequence of their creation. For instance, the CR number s.14-03A refers to a first version of Boxing, realized in 1914, while the CR number s.14-03B refers to a second version of Boxing 1914/1935, realized in 1935.

    The current CR numbers are based on numbers first assigned by the Estate of Alexander Archipenko. New research compelled us to revise some of these originally assigned dates. However, we kept the original CR numbers for reference purposes. For example, the work Adam and Eve carries the CR number s.08-01, but is now dated 1909.

    Photography
    The Alexander Archipenko Sculpture Catalogue Raisonné plans to illustrate each individual sculpture with high-quality photographs, including primary and alternative views, historic images, and situational photography from exhibition and studio records. A gray box in place of an image indicates that no image is currently available. As new images are provided, they will be added to the site. To illustrate a specific CR number that includes numerous examples, a photograph of a work from the edition has been selected.

    Titles
    Titles are provided as assigned by Archipenko and/or as published during the artist’s lifetime in primary and secondary sources. If no formal title was used or published, sculptures are left untitled or are given a descriptive name in brackets to distinguish the work.

    Following Archipenko’s biography, many of the titles first used for his early works were in French and/or German. Only after his immigration to the United States did he use English titles. For the Catalogue Raisonné, we decided to list the title of an artwork first in English, then in French and German, followed by Spanish and/or Italian if Archipenko used a title in that language for a specific piece during his lifetime.

    Dates
    Dates are given for each artwork for the year during which the work was presumably conceived. When we have no certain evidence, that year is followed by “circa,” abbreviated as “c,” or respectively, a range of years is followed by “c.”

    When Archipenko dated his works, including subsequent versions, with the date of original conception, we adhere to this practice by assigning a first date as the year of conception, followed by a second date for the specific version. For example, the second version of Boxing, realized in 1935 but dated 1914 by the artist, is now dated 1914/1935.

    Many sculptures that have been realized in editions have previously been dated only with the date of conception, like an earliest model. In the Catalogue Raisonné, works are dated also by the date of the version, as explained above. Moreover, if known, we include the year the sculpture was actually cast. However, as historical accounts of fabrications are frequently incomplete, many casting dates are circa dates based on contextual information such as exhibition or sale of the work. For instance, a cast of Boxing is dated 1914 (cast 1961), indicating that the work was cast in 1961 from a model from 1914.

    Materials
    All known materials of an artwork are listed. In certain cases this is limited because we were either unable to examine the artwork, and/or laboratory reports are unavailable.

    Dimensions
    We indicate dimensions for each work in inches, followed by centimeter equivalents, in order of height, width, and depth. Since not all sculptures could be measured, some measurements were taken from archival records, publications, etc. If available, measurements for bases are given separately.

    Inscriptions
    Archipenko signed his name in different ways. On metal castings, foundries frequently stamped or inscribed his name; sometimes, his signature was only sharpened (when it was cast from an inscription already in the model). We also note foundry marks, cast numbers, or other tags. If a date is part of the inscription, it is most often the year of conception as assigned by the artist. If no signature or inscription exists on the artwork, “not inscribed” is indicated.

    In some instances, edition numbers inscribed on the work may not match information provided elsewhere in the entry for a sculpture. For example, a work might have been recorded as cast number 3/8 in the artist’s records or in an exhibition catalogue, but it is actually inscribed with the number 2/6. Moreover, inconsistency in the sequential marking of casts can complicate the specific enumeration of an edition. For instance, in one edition run of eight, a bronze cast is inscribed 1, another has no numeral, yet another is inscribed 3/4, two are inscribed 4/6, two 6/8, one 7/8, and none 8/8. Information, whenever available, is provided in the comments section to address these discrepancies.

    Edition
    Edition series often include an early model from which a mold was prepared and examples cast, most often in metal. Un-numbered editions were also cast in plaster, terracotta, or various stone aggregates. When there is no evidence of the first model, it is considered “discarded” and is not listed.

    Foundries
    Foundries involved in casting Archipenko’s sculptures are indicated, if known.

    Current Collection and Provenance
    The history of an artwork’s ownership and its current owner is provided and includes the year of acquisition, if known. Unknown or unconfirmed information is annotated by a question mark in brackets.

    If a work is in a public institution, collection credits are listed as required. Individual collectors are listed as “Private Collection” plus the country of their location. Artworks that have been determined as lost or destroyed are listed as such. Works for which no current location has been confirmed are noted as "collection unknown."  
    Provenance is listed in order from the first known owner to the current collection. Though Archipenko generally was the first owner of each artwork, the artist is not listed in the provenance.

    Artworks in Archipenko’s possession in 1964 were inherited by Frances Archipenko Gray, whom he also appointed as the sole executor of his estate, authorizing her to find an institution, preferably in Germany, that was qualified under United States law as a not-for-profit museum to receive all the original plasters in the estate’s possession. The Saarland Museum in Saarbrücken, Germany, changed its bylaws in order to receive the bequest. These transfers of ownership are indicated in the provenance.

    Auctions and galleries, only on occasion owners of a work, are generally included in the provenance in order to distinguish specific artworks. Moreover, the provenance of posthumous casts lists the responsible party for the casting, such as Frances Archipenko Gray (1964-2006), Archipenko Associates (1967-1970), and The Archipenko Foundation (since 2006).

    Exhibitions
    The list of exhibitions for a sculpture includes solo and group exhibitions in which the work was included, ordered chronologically from oldest to newest. An exhibition that included an artwork from an edition is listed for the individual example exhibited.

    Publications
    The literature list includes publications such as books, essays, and articles in which the work was cited and/or illustrated. Page numbers, catalogue numbers, and plate numbers are noted. Exhibition catalogs are not included in this listing as this information is provided in the exhibition entry. The publications are ordered chronologically from earliest to latest. Literature references for an artwork from an edition series are listed only for the exemplar that is cited or illustrated.

    Comments
    Comments are included to address historical or other significant attributes of the sculpture that have not been provided in other fields. Comments are limited to factual and contextual information.

    Examined
    If indicated that a work has been examined, then material, measurements, and inscriptions are listed as recorded by Archipenko Foundation staff.

  • EXHIBITIONS

    Exhibition entries are ordered chronologically from the earliest to the latest, and list solo and group exhibitions in which artworks included in The Alexander Archipenko Sculpture Catalogue Raisonné were shown. Title, venue, and dates, including travel venues, are indicated.

    Traveling Exhibitions
    For exhibitions that have traveled to multiple venues, the first institution is listed as the primary venue. Subsequent venues and dates are listed. While checklists may change from venue to venue, the entries include all known works shown during the entire exhibition.

    Sculpture Editions
    While every effort is made to give correct information, in the case of artworks with multiple exemplars and editions, it may be impossible to identify which example or edition was shown in the exhibition. In these cases, the most likely example in the series is included in the checklist of artworks, with a question mark in brackets.

  • BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Bibliography entries are ordered chronologically from the earliest to the latest. All relevant details are noted, including author and/or editor, title, year and/or date, journal, series, publisher, and place of publication. Specific page numbers are given, if known.

    Citation
    Bibliographic citations are styled following the Chicago Manual of Style, according to the format of the writing (book, magazine article, newspaper article, transcript, etc.).

    Artworks Cited
    While every effort is made to provide exact citations, in the case of sculptures it may be impossible to identify which example or particular edition was cited or illustrated. In these cases, the most likely example is included in the list of citations, with a question mark in brackets.

    Contributing Authors
    Contributing authors not noted in the citation are listed with their role, such as “essay by,” or “foreword by.”

    Languages
    Generally, the titles of texts not written in the ISO basic Latin alphabet have been translated.

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